Prevention and aftercare of cardiovascular diseases
means that a disease is prevented by adopting suitable measures already before it occurs. The key element for successful prevention is the identification and therapy of risk factors resulting from lifestyle and hereditary disposition. The data thus collected serve to determine the individual probability of a heart attack or stroke.
EXAMINATIONS FOR PREVENTION
- Taking of the medical history of the patient’s family, in particular regarding diseases of first-degree relatives.
- Noting of the patient’s food pattern and sports activities.
- Laboratory values such as blood lipids (cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol), atherogenic in-dex, blood glucose, HbA1c, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, fibrinogen.
- Blood pressure measurement (possibly long-term blood pressure measurement or meas-uring the blood pressure under stress)
- Determination of the physical constitution by means of a measurement of the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the body composition (body fat analysis), abdominal girth measurement. An additional cardiovascular ultrasound examination is advisable.
Aftercare means that after a cardiovascular disease and following collection of the patient’s cur-rent data within a diagnostic (see Prevention, and additionally e.g. echocardiography, angiogra-phy, magnetic resonance tomography) a therapy is initiated enabling the patient to lead a high-quality life for as long as possible. This therapy comprises secondary prevention (optimum con-trol of all existing risk factors via lifestyle adjustment and drug therapy) and an exercise scheme adapted to the current situation.
A benefit of both prevention and aftercare is that exercises adapted to the personal fitness level will improve the physical capacity in the medium and long term. The key points for the prepara-tion of a personal training scheme are compiled within the patient’s testing by means of ergospi-rometry and lactate performance measurement.